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تفسير Commentary
وليم ماكدونالد
وليم مارش
Matthew Henry

التثنية [21] Deuteronomy
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Chapter Summary
1 «إِذَا وُجِدَ قَتِيلٌ فِي الأَرْضِ الَّتِي يُعْطِيكَ الرَّبُّ إِلهُكَ لِتَمْتَلِكَهَا وَاقِعًا فِي الْحَقْلِ، لاَ يُعْلَمُ مَنْ قَتَلَهُ،1 If one be found slain in the land which the LORD thy God giveth thee to possess it, lying in the field, and it be not known who hath slain him:
2 يَخْرُجُ شُيُوخُكَ وَقُضَاتُكَ وَيَقِيسُونَ إِلَى الْمُدُنِ الَّتِي حَوْلَ الْقَتِيلِ.2 Then thy elders and thy judges shall come forth, and they shall measure unto the cities which are round about him that is slain:
3 فَالْمَدِينَةُ الْقُرْبَى مِنَ الْقَتِيلِ، يَأْخُذُ شُيُوخُ تِلْكَ الْمَدِينَةِ عِجْلَةً مِنَ الْبَقَرِ لَمْ يُحْرَثْ عَلَيْهَا، لَمْ تَجُرَّ بِالنِّيرِ.3 And it shall be, that the city which is next unto the slain man, even the elders of that city shall take an heifer, which hath not been wrought with, and which hath not drawn in the yoke;
4 وَيَنْحَدِرُ شُيُوخُ تِلْكَ الْمَدِينَةِ بِالْعِجْلَةِ إِلَى وَادٍ دَائِمِ السَّيَلاَنِ لَمْ يُحْرَثْ فِيهِ وَلَمْ يُزْرَعْ، وَيَكْسِرُونَ عُنُقَ الْعِجْلَةِ فِي الْوَادِي.4 And the elders of that city shall bring down the heifer unto a rough valley, which is neither eared nor sown, and shall strike off the heifer's neck there in the valley:
5 ثُمَّ يَتَقَدَّمُ الْكَهَنَةُ بَنُو لاَوِي، لأَنَّهُ إِيَّاهُمُ اخْتَارَ الرَّبُّ إِلهُكَ لِيَخْدِمُوهُ وَيُبَارِكُوا بِاسْمِ الرَّبِّ، وَحَسَبَ قَوْلِهِمْ تَكُونُ كُلُّ خُصُومَةٍ وَكُلُّ ضَرْبَةٍ،5 And the priests the sons of Levi shall come near; for them the LORD thy God hath chosen to minister unto him, and to bless in the name of the LORD; and by their word shall every controversy and every stroke be tried:
6 وَيَغْسِلُ جَمِيعُ شُيُوخِ تِلْكَ الْمَدِينَةِ الْقَرِيبِينَ مِنَ الْقَتِيلِ أَيْدِيَهُمْ عَلَى الْعِجْلَةِ الْمَكْسُورَةِ الْعُنُقُِ فِي الْوَادِي،6 And all the elders of that city, that are next unto the slain man, shall wash their hands over the heifer that is beheaded in the valley:
7 وَيُصَرِّحُونَ وَيَقُولُونَ: أَيْدِينَا لَمْ تَسْفِكْ هذَا الدَّمَ، وَأَعْيُنُنَا لَمْ تُبْصِرْ.7 And they shall answer and say, Our hands have not shed this blood, neither have our eyes seen it.
8 اِغْفِرْ لِشَعْبِكَ إِسْرَائِيلَ الَّذِي فَدَيْتَ يَا رَبُّ، وَلاَ تَجْعَلْ دَمَ بَرِيءٍ فِي وَسَطِ شَعْبِكَ إِسْرَائِيلَ. فَيُغْفَرُ لَهُمُ الدَّمُ.8 Be merciful, O LORD, unto thy people Israel, whom thou hast redeemed, and lay not innocent blood unto thy people of Israel's charge. And the blood shall be forgiven them.
9 فَتَنْزعُ الدَّمَ الْبَرِيءَ مِنْ وَسَطِكَ إِذَا عَمِلْتَ الصَّالِحَ فِي عَيْنَيِ الرَّبِّ.9 So shalt thou put away the guilt of innocent blood from among you, when thou shalt do that which is right in the sight of the LORD.
10 «إِذَا خَرَجْتَ لِمُحَارَبَةِ أَعْدَائِكَ وَدَفَعَهُمُ الرَّبُّ إِلهُكَ إِلَى يَدِكَ، وَسَبَيْتَ مِنْهُمْ سَبْيًا،10 When thou goest forth to war against thine enemies, and the LORD thy God hath delivered them into thine hands, and thou hast taken them captive,
11 وَرَأَيْتَ فِي السَّبْيِ امْرَأَةً جَمِيلَةَ الصُّورَةِ، وَالْتَصَقْتَ بِهَا وَاتَّخَذْتَهَا لَكَ زَوْجَةً،11 And seest among the captives a beautiful woman, and hast a desire unto her, that thou wouldest have her to thy wife;
12 فَحِينَ تُدْخِلُهَا إِلَى بَيْتِكَ تَحْلِقُ رَأْسَهَا وَتُقَلِّمُ أَظْفَارَهَا12 Then thou shalt bring her home to thine house, and she shall shave her head, and pare her nails;
13 وَتَنْزِعُ ثِيَابَ سَبْيِهَا عَنْهَا، وَتَقْعُدُ فِي بَيْتِكَ وَتَبْكِي أَبَاهَا وَأُمَّهَا شَهْرًا مِنَ الزَّمَانِ، ثُمَّ بَعْدَ ذلِكَ تَدْخُلُ عَلَيْهَا وَتَتَزَوَّجُ بِهَا، فَتَكُونُ لَكَ زَوْجَةً.13 And she shall put the raiment of her captivity from off her, and shall remain in thine house, and bewail her father and her mother a full month: and after that thou shalt go in unto her, and be her husband, and she shall be thy wife.
14 وَإِنْ لَمْ تُسَرَّ بِهَا فَأَطْلِقْهَا لِنَفْسِهَا. لاَ تَبِعْهَا بَيْعًا بِفِضَّةٍ، وَلاَ تَسْتَرِقَّهَا مِنْ أَجْلِ أَنَّكَ قَدْ أَذْلَلْتَهَا. 14 And it shall be, if thou have no delight in her, then thou shalt let her go whither she will; but thou shalt not sell her at all for money, thou shalt not make merchandise of her, because thou hast humbled her.
15 «إِذَا كَانَ لِرَجُلٍ امْرَأَتَانِ، إِحْدَاهُمَا مَحْبُوبَةٌ وَالأُخْرَى مَكْرُوهَةٌ، فَوَلَدَتَا لَهُ بَنِينَ، الْمَحْبُوبَةُ وَالْمَكْرُوهَةُ. فَإِنْ كَانَ الابْنُ الْبِكْرُ لِلْمَكْرُوهَةِ،15 If a man have two wives, one beloved, and another hated, and they have born him children, both the beloved and the hated; and if the firstborn son be hers that was hated:
16 فَيَوْمَ يَقْسِمُ لِبَنِيهِ مَا كَانَ لَهُ، لاَ يَحِلُّ لَهُ أَنْ يُقَدِّمَ ابْنَ الْمَحْبُوبَةِ بِكْرًا عَلَى ابْنِ الْمَكْرُوهَةِ الْبِكْرِ،16 Then it shall be, when he maketh his sons to inherit that which he hath, that he may not make the son of the beloved firstborn before the son of the hated, which is indeed the firstborn:
17 بَلْ يَعْرِفُ ابْنَ الْمَكْرُوهَةِ بِكْرًا لِيُعْطِيَهُ نَصِيبَ اثْنَيْنِ مِنْ كُلِّ مَا يُوجَدُ عِنْدَهُ، لأَنَّهُ هُوَ أَوَّلُ قُدْرَتِهِ. لَهُ حَقُّ الْبَكُورِيَّةِ.17 But he shall acknowledge the son of the hated for the firstborn, by giving him a double portion of all that he hath: for he is the beginning of his strength; the right of the firstborn is his.
18 «إِذَا كَانَ لِرَجُل ابْنٌ مُعَانِدٌ وَمَارِدٌ لاَ يَسْمَعُ لِقَوْلِ أَبِيهِ وَلاَ لِقَوْلِ أُمِّهِ، وَيُؤَدِّبَانِهِ فَلاَ يَسْمَعُ لَهُمَا. 18 If a man have a stubborn and rebellious son, which will not obey the voice of his father, or the voice of his mother, and that, when they have chastened him, will not hearken unto them:
19 يُمْسِكُهُ أَبُوهُ وَأُمُّهُ وَيَأْتِيَانِ بِهِ إِلَى شُيُوخِ مَدِينَتِهِ وَإِلَى بَابِ مَكَانِهِ،19 Then shall his father and his mother lay hold on him, and bring him out unto the elders of his city, and unto the gate of his place;
20 وَيَقُولاَنِ لِشُيُوخِ مَدِينَتِهِ: ابْنُنَا هذَا مُعَانِدٌ وَمَارِدٌ لاَ يَسْمَعُ لِقَوْلِنَا، وَهُوَ مُسْرِفٌ وَسِكِّيرٌ.20 And they shall say unto the elders of his city, This our son is stubborn and rebellious, he will not obey our voice; he is a glutton, and a drunkard.
21 فَيَرْجُمُهُ جَمِيعُ رِجَالِ مَدِينَتِهِ بِحِجَارَةٍ حَتَّى يَمُوتَ. فَتَنْزِعُ الشَّرَّ مِنْ بَيْنِكُمْ، وَيَسْمَعُ كُلُّ إِسْرَائِيلَ وَيَخَافُونَ.21 And all the men of his city shall stone him with stones, that he die: so shalt thou put evil away from among you; and all Israel shall hear, and fear.
22 «وَإِذَا كَانَ عَلَى إِنْسَانٍ خَطِيَّةٌ حَقُّهَا الْمَوْتُ، فَقُتِلَ وَعَلَّقْتَهُ عَلَى خَشَبَةٍ،22 And if a man have committed a sin worthy of death, and he be to be put to death, and thou hang him on a tree:
23 فَلاَ تَبِتْ جُثَّتُهُ عَلَى الْخَشَبَةِ، بَلْ تَدْفِنُهُ فِي ذلِكَ الْيَوْمِ، لأَنَّ الْمُعَلَّقَ مَلْعُونٌ مِنَ اللهِ. فَلاَ تُنَجِّسْ أَرْضَكَ الَّتِي يُعْطِيكَ الرَّبُّ إِلهُكَ نَصِيبًا.23 His body shall not remain all night upon the tree, but thou shalt in any wise bury him that day; (for he that is hanged is accursed of God;) that thy land be not defiled, which the LORD thy God giveth thee for an inheritance.
تَسْتَرقّ
تشتري عبداً أو أمة. تستعبد.
مارد
متمرد، عاص.