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تفسير Commentary
وليم ماكدونالد
وليم مارش
Matthew Henry

التثنية [19] Deuteronomy
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Chapter Summary
1 «مَتَى قَرَضَ الرَّبُّ إِلهُكَ الأُمَمَ الَّذِينَ الرَّبُّ إِلهُكَ يُعْطِيكَ أَرْضَهُمْ، وَوَرِثْتَهُمْ وَسَكَنْتَ مُدُنَهُمْ وَبُيُوتَهُمْ،1 When the LORD thy God hath cut off the nations, whose land the LORD thy God giveth thee, and thou succeedest them, and dwellest in their cities, and in their houses;
2 تَفْرِزُ لِنَفْسِكَ ثَلاَثَ مُدُنٍ فِي وَسَطِ أَرْضِكَ الَّتِي يُعْطِيكَ الرَّبُّ إِلهُكَ لِتَمْتَلِكَهَا.2 Thou shalt separate three cities for thee in the midst of thy land, which the LORD thy God giveth thee to possess it.
3 تُصْلِحُ الطَّرِيقَ وَتُثَلِّثُ تُخُومَ أَرْضِكَ الَّتِي يَقْسِمُ لَكَ الرَّبُّ إِلهُكَ، فَتَكُونُ لِكَيْ يَهْرُبَ إِلَيْهَا كُلُّ قَاتِلٍ.3 Thou shalt prepare thee a way, and divide the coasts of thy land, which the LORD thy God giveth thee to inherit, into three parts, that every slayer may flee thither.
4 وَهذَا هُوَ حُكْمُ الْقَاتِلِ الَّذِي يَهْرُبُ إِلَى هُنَاكَ فَيَحْيَا: مَنْ ضَرَبَ صَاحِبَهُ بِغَيْرِ عِلْمٍ وَهُوَ غَيْرُ مُبْغِضٍ لَهُ مُنْذُ أَمْسِ وَمَا قَبْلَهُ.4 And this is the case of the slayer, which shall flee thither, that he may live: Whoso killeth his neighbor ignorantly, whom he hated not in time past;
5 وَمَنْ ذَهَبَ مَعَ صَاحِبِهِ فِي الْوَعْرِ لِيَحْتَطِبَ حَطَبًا، فَانْدَفَعَتْ يَدُهُ بِالْفَأْسِ لِيَقْطَعَ الْحَطَبَ، وَأَفْلَتَ الْحَدِيدُ مِنَ الْخَشَبِ وَأَصَابَ صَاحِبَهُ فَمَاتَ، فَهُوَ يَهْرُبُ إِلَى إِحْدَى تِلْكَ الْمُدُنِ فَيَحْيَا.5 As when a man goeth into the wood with his neighbor to hew wood, and his hand fetcheth a stroke with the axe to cut down the tree, and the head slippeth from the helve, and lighteth upon his neighbor, that he die; he shall flee unto one of those cities, and live:
6 لِئَلاَّ يَسْعَى وَلِيُّ الدَّمِ وَرَاءَ الْقَاتِلِ حِينَ يَحْمَى قَلْبُهُ، وَيُدْرِكَهُ إِذَا طَالَ الطَّرِيقُ وَيَقْتُلَهُ، وَلَيْسَ عَلَيْهِ حُكْمُ الْمَوْتِ، لأَنَّهُ غَيْرُ مُبْغِضٍ لَهُ مُنْذُ أَمْسِ وَمَا قَبْلَهُ.6 Lest the avenger of the blood pursue the slayer, while his heart is hot, and overtake him, because the way is long, and slay him; whereas he was not worthy of death, inasmuch as he hated him not in time past.
7 لأَجْلِ ذلِكَ أَنَا آمُرُكَ قَائِلاً: ثَلاَثَ مُدُنٍ تَفْرِزُ لِنَفْسِكَ.7 Wherefore I command thee, saying, Thou shalt separate three cities for thee.
8 وَإِنْ وَسَّعَ الرَّبُّ إِلهُكَ تُخُومَكَ كَمَا حَلَفَ لآبَائِكَ، وَأَعْطَاكَ جَمِيعَ الأَرْضِ الَّتِي قَالَ إِنَّهُ يُعْطِي لآبَائِكَ،8 And if the LORD thy God enlarge thy coast, as he hath sworn unto thy fathers, and give thee all the land which he promised to give unto thy fathers;
9 إِذْ حَفِظْتَ كُلَّ هذِهِ الْوَصَايَا لِتَعْمَلَهَا، كَمَا أَنَا أُوصِيكَ الْيَوْمَ لِتُحِبَّ الرَّبَّ إِلهَكَ وَتَسْلُكَ فِي طُرُقِهِ كُلَّ الأَيَّامِ، فَزِدْ لِنَفْسِكَ أَيْضًا ثَلاَثَ مُدُنٍ عَلَى هذِهِ الثَّلاَثِ،9 If thou shalt keep all these commandments to do them, which I command thee this day, to love the LORD thy God, and to walk ever in his ways; then shalt thou add three cities more for thee, beside these three:
10 حَتَّى لاَ يُسْفَكُ دَمُ بَرِيءٍ فِي وَسَطِ أَرْضِكَ الَّتِي يُعْطِيكَ الرَّبُّ إِلهُكَ نَصِيبًا، فَيَكُونَ عَلَيْكَ دَمٌ.10 That innocent blood be not shed in thy land, which the LORD thy God giveth thee for an inheritance, and so blood be upon thee.
11 «وَلكِنْ إِذَا كَانَ إِنْسَانٌ مُبْغِضًا لِصَاحِبِهِ، فَكَمَنَ لَهُ وَقَامَ عَلَيْهِ وَضَرَبَهُ ضَرْبَةً قَاتِلَةً فَمَاتَ، ثُمَّ هَرَبَ إِلَى إِحْدَى تِلْكَ الْمُدُنِ،11 But if any man hate his neighbor, and lie in wait for him, and rise up against him, and smite him mortally that he die, and fleeth into one of these cities:
12 يُرْسِلُ شُيُوخُ مَدِينَتِهِ وَيَأْخُذُونَهُ مِنْ هُنَاكَ وَيَدْفَعُونَهُ إِلَى يَدِ وَلِيِّ الدَّمِ فَيَمُوتُ.12 Then the elders of his city shall send and fetch him thence, and deliver him into the hand of the avenger of blood, that he may die.
13 لاَ تُشْفِقْ عَيْنُكَ عَلَيْهِ. فَتَنْزِعَ دَمَ الْبَرِيءِ مِنْ إِسْرَائِيلَ، فَيَكُونَ لَكَ خَيْرٌ.13 Thine eye shall not pity him, but thou shalt put away the guilt of innocent blood from Israel, that it may go well with thee.
14 لاَ تَنْقُلْ تُخْمَ صَاحِبِكَ الَّذِي نَصَبَهُ الأَوَّلُونَ فِي نَصِيبِكَ الَّذِي تَنَالُهُ فِي الأَرْضِ الَّتِي يُعْطِيكَ الرَّبُّ إِلهُكَ لِكَيْ تَمْتَلِكَهَا.14 Thou shalt not remove thy neighbor's landmark, which they of old time have set in thine inheritance, which thou shalt inherit in the land that the LORD thy God giveth thee to possess it.
15 «لاَ يَقُومُ شَاهِدٌ وَاحِدٌ عَلَى إِنْسَانٍ فِي ذَنْبٍ مَا أَوْ خَطِيَّةٍ مَا مِنْ جَمِيعِ الْخَطَايَا الَّتِي يُخْطِئُ بِهَا. عَلَى فَمِ شَاهِدَيْنِ أَوْ عَلَى فَمِ ثَلاَثَةِ شُهُودٍ يَقُومُ الأَمْرُ.15 One witness shall not rise up against a man for any iniquity, or for any sin, in any sin that he sinneth: at the mouth of two witnesses, or at the mouth of three witnesses, shall the matter be established.
16 إِذَا قَامَ شَاهِدُ زُورٍ عَلَى إِنْسَانٍ لِيَشْهَدَ عَلَيْهِ بِزَيْغٍ،16 If a false witness rise up against any man to testify against him that which is wrong;
17 يَقِفُ الرَّجُلاَنِ اللَّذَانِ بَيْنَهُمَا الْخُصُومَةُ أَمَامَ الرَّبِّ، أَمَامَ الْكَهَنَةِ وَالْقُضَاةِ الَّذِينَ يَكُونُونَ فِي تِلْكَ الأَيَّامِ.17 Then both the men, between whom the controversy is, shall stand before the LORD, before the priests and the judges, which shall be in those days;
18 فَإِنْ فَحَصَ الْقُضَاةُ جَيِّدًا، وَإِذَا الشَّاهِدُ شَاهِدٌ كَاذِبٌ، قَدْ شَهِدَ بِالْكَذِبِ عَلَى أَخِيهِ،18 And the judges shall make diligent inquisition: and, behold, if the witness be a false witness, and hath testified falsely against his brother;
19 فَافْعَلُوا بِهِ كَمَا نَوَى أَنْ يَفْعَلَ بِأَخِيهِ. فَتَنْزِعُونَ الشَّرَّ مِنْ وَسْطِكُمْ.19 Then shall ye do unto him, as he had thought to have done unto his brother: so shalt thou put the evil away from among you.
20 وَيَسْمَعُ الْبَاقُونَ فَيَخَافُونَ، وَلاَ يَعُودُونَ يَفْعَلُونَ مِثْلَ ذلِكَ الأَمْرِ الْخَبِيثِ فِي وَسَطِكَ.20 And those which remain shall hear, and fear, and shall henceforth commit no more any such evil among you.
21 لاَ تُشْفِقْ عَيْنُكَ. نَفْسٌ بِنَفْسٍ. عَيْنٌ بِعَيْنٍ. سِنٌّ بِسِنٍّ. يَدٌ بِيَدٍ. رِجْلٌ بِرِجْلٍ.21 And thine eye shall not pity; but life shall go for life, eye for eye, tooth for tooth, hand for hand, foot for foot.